Scarlet Fever has been confirmed in Ilkeston.
Two cases have been reported at Chaucer Infant and Nursery School.
Public Health England revealed there have been 134 cases of the condition reported to it in the East Midlands since the beginning of January compared with 56 in the same period last year.
A total of 40 notifications in Derbyshire have been recorded during the first eight weeks of 2014, compared with 28 over the same period in 2013, according to Public Health England.
Scarlet Fever, sometimes called Scarlatina, is a bacterial illness which causes a distinctive pink-red rash and it is most common in children between the ages of two and eight years.
It is caused by bacteria which affects the throat and causes the tongue to swell and redden and the cheeks to flush.
Symptoms include a sore throat, a high temperature and a rash.